Friday, February 15, 2013

Opened Twice For The Grateful Dead

The poster from Laguna Seca Raceway in Monterey, CA, for the May 9-10, 1987 shows featuring Ry Cooder opening for the Grateful Dead. Jorge Calderon was probably Cooder's bassist at the time
One of my research approaches to the history of the Grateful Dead has been to take existing data and re-assemble it in an illuminating way. As a practical matter, this often consists of making a list of some sort, like a timeline. Often, a simple timeline or list can be profoundly revealing. Other times, not so much. In this case, I made a complex list, expecting a variety of intriguing themes, yet none were forthcoming. Nonetheless--since this is my blog--I am posting my list anyway, in the hopes that someone finds it interesting, and perhaps there may be some useful conclusions that we can ultimately draw, even if they are currently invisible to me.

The Grateful Dead were amongst the early wave of Fillmore-era bands who set out upon the road, playing ballrooms, colleges and municipal auditoriums across the country. Wave after wave of bands followed them, as the rock concert industry expanded and matured, becoming one of the principal forms of live entertainment. Yet the Grateful Dead had the same core membership for decades on end, save for the odd keyboard player, while other bands came and went, with a dizzying array of personnel changes to boot.

This list looks at the Grateful Dead from the point of view of individual musicians who shared a booking with the Grateful Dead. I am focused on finding musicians who performed on the same bill as the Grateful Dead with more than one performing ensemble. In order to make this meaningful at all, I had to build in some constraints. While this list includes musicians who played with two different groups who performed with the Dead, it does not include:
  • Bands that were part of all-day or multi-day events with numerous performers (like Monterey Pop or Woodstock)
  • Bands that included members of The Grateful Dead (like the early New Riders)
  • Jam or guest star-type situations where someone just sat in with another band, rather than being an actual band member
  • Bands who mostly just changed their name, with no significant personnel changes (like Working Class>Sanpaku, or Yogi Phlegm>The Sons Of Champlin), or solo artists using different performing names (like Sir Douglas Quintet>Doug Sahm Band)
The dates listed with each performer are the first date that fits my criteria. Obviously, certain musicians opened for the Grateful Dead many times, but my focus here was on those who opened or played with the band in two or more ensembles. Anyone with suggestions, corrections or insights into this list is encouraged to email me or put them in the Comments

update: thanks to some awesome Comments, the post is being continually updated. Changes are noted with a bolded update at the bottom of the entry)

The 1968 Columbia album Conspicuous Only In Its Absence, by The Great Society! The album was recorded in 1966 at the Matrix, but was released two years later when Grace Slick had become famous
Grace Slick-vocals
Dec 10 '65, Fillmore: The Great Society
Dec 31 '66, Fillmore: Jefferson Airplane
Sep 28, 1975, Golden Gate Park: Jefferson Starship
Remarkably, among the few musicians who have played with the Grateful Dead in three different bands was Grace Slick. She was in the Great Society when they shared the bill with the Dead and the Airplane at the Mime Troupe Benefit at the Fillmore (Appeal II). She joined the Airplane the next October, so she did not share the bill with the Dead until New Year's. Many years later, the Jefferson Starship was co-billed with the Dead many times, the first of which was a free concert at Golden Gate Park in 1975 (while you can argue that I have no violated my own criteria by using that date, the fact is that the Starship opened for the Dead quite a number of times). 

Spencer Dryden-drums
Jul 16 '66, Fillmore: Jefferson Airplane
Nov 11, 1971 Municipal Auditorium, Atlanta, GA: New Riders Of The Purple Sage
Dec 31 '82, Oakland Auditorium: The Dinosaurs
Spencer Dryden had replaced Skip Spence as Jefferson Airplane in June of 1966, and the Airplane shared a bill with the Dead the next month. Dryden's last show with the Airplane was February 4, 1970. After a hiatus, he joined the New Riders of The Purple Sage, replacing Mickey Hart. Dryden's first gig with the Riders was December 12, 1970. However, according to my own self-imposed criteria, performances with members of the Dead don't count. Buddy Cage replaced Jerry Garcia in the New Riders at the Atlanta show on November 11, 1971, so I am marking Dryden there.

On New Year's Eve, 1982, Dryden was a member of The Dinosaurs when they opened for the Grateful Dead. Robert Hunter, though a member of the Grateful Dead, wasn't a performing member, so I am counting the Dinosaurs show.

Jorege Calderon's 1975 Warner Brothers solo album, City Music
Jorge Calderon-bass, guitar
Jun 4 '78, County Stadium, Santa Barbara: Warren Zevon
May 9 '87, Laguna Seca, Monterey:  Ry Cooder
August 22 '87, Fairgrounds, Angels Camp, CA: El Rayo-X
 Jorge Calderon has been a well-established studio musician in Los Angeles for many decades. He regularly toured with various artists also, mostly playing bass and sometimes guitar. I am unable to confirm precisely that he was in all three of these groups when they opened for the Dead, but I know that he was a regular member of Warren Zevon's 1978 band (playing guitar), and Ry Cooder and El Rayo-X in 1987 (as bassist). Ry Cooder played very few shows, so it's plausible that Calderon was a member of both bands that year.

Truthfully, I thought I'd find a lot more musicians like Jorge Calderon on my list, veteran guys who'd been around in various bands. However, careful research actually turned up very few such players outside of original Fillmore bands.

Skip Spence-drums, guitar, vocals
Dec 10 '65, Fillmore: Jefferson Airplane
Dec 23 '66, Avalon: Moby Grape
In Fall 1965, Skip Spence had been the guitarist in an unnamed band that rehearsed in the Matrix. Spence was unexpectedly drafted to become the Jefferson Airplane's drummer (the unnamed band evolved into Quicksilver Messenger Service, which tells you how small the scene really was back then). Spence could play any instrument well, but he was really a guitarist and singer, so he left the Airplane in May, 1966, replaced by Spencer Dryden. Spence joined Moby Grape, and they opened for the Dead at the end of 1966.

Jorma Kaukonen-guitar, vocals
Jack Casady-bass
Dec 10 '65, Fillmore: Jefferson Airplane
Jun 27 '69, County Fairgrounds, Santa Rosa: Hot Tuna
Jorma Kaukonen and Jack Casady have probably shared a bill with the Dead more than any musicians who weren't in the New Riders. The Airplane shared the bills throughout the 60s, and Hot Tuna played many gigs with the Dead in the early 70s. The first time Jorma and Jack shared a bill with the Dead without the 'Plane was on June 27, 1969 in Santa Rosa. They were actually billed as 'Jorma Kaukonen, Jack Casady and Joey Covington', but it was Hot Tuna as we know it.

Paul Kantner-guitar, vocals
Dec 10 '65, Fillmore: Jefferson Airplane
Sep 28, 1975, Golden Gate Park: Jefferson Starship
 Paul Kantner was yet another member of the Airplane/Starship crowd who was billed with the Dead in two groups. 

Sam Andrews-guitar
Jan 22 '66, Longshoreman's Hall, SF: Big Brother and The Holding Company 
Feb 11 '69, Fillmore East, Janis Joplin and Her Band
Big Brother and The Holding Company's second booking was at the Trips Festival in January 1966 (Big Brother had debuted in Berkeley the week before). When Big Brother broke up the first time at the end of 1968, Sam Andrews joined Janis Joplin's next band.

Peter Albin-bass
Jan 22 '66, Longshoreman's Hall, SF: Big Brother and The Holding Company
Dec 31 '82, Oakland Auditorium: The Dinosaurs
Nearly 17 years after Big Brother's debut, bassist Peter Albin was in The Dinosaurs when they opened for the Dead.

David Freiberg-bass, vocals
Jun 3 '66, Fillmore: Quicksilver Messenger Service
Sep 28, 1975, Golden Gate Park: Jefferson Starship
David Freiberg, another old friend, had also been in the unnamed band with Skip Spence that rehearsed at the Matrix. Quicksilver first shared one of many bills with the Grateful Dead on June 3, 1966. Like most of the 1975 Starship, when they played with the Dead in Golden Gate Park, it was  Freiberg's second band to share the stage with the Dead.

John Cipollina-guitar
Jun 3 '66, Fillmore: Quicksilver Messenger Service
Dec 31 '82, Oakland Auditorium: The Dinosaurs
Cipollina, too, had been part of that unnamed 1965 Matrix band, and was also in The Dinosaurs.
A flyer for the November 10-11, 1967 shows at the Shrine Exposition Hall in Los Angeles. Blue Cheer opened for the Grateful Dead and the Buffalo Springfield
Dickie Petersen-bass, vocals
Jul 3 '66, Fillmore: Group B
Nov 10 '67, Shrine Exposition Hall, LA: Blue Cheer
The late Dickie Petersen was from Davis, near Sacramento. Group B played weird, baroque rock. They evolved into the group Andrew Staples (no one in the band had that name), who also opened for the Dead a few times (such as at the Old Spaghetti Factory on Nov 12 '66). In Fall 1966, Petersen left Andrew Staples  and formed the infamous group Blue Cheer.  Initially, Blue Cheer only played the Matrix and perhaps a few Davis dates, and did not go full-time until mid-1967.

Janis Joplin-vocals
Jul 14 '66, Fillmore, Big Brother and The Holding Company
Feb 11 '69, Fillmore East, Janis Joplin and Her Band
As for Janis, she did not join Big Brother until June 1966, so she first shared a stage with the Grateful Dead on July 14 of that year.

Country Joe McDonald-guitar, vocals
Sep 4 '66, Fillmore: Country Joe And The Fish
May 28, 1982, Moscone Convention Center, SF: Country Joe McDonald
In fact, Country Joe and The Fish had played with the Dead at a free concert in the Panhandle on August 13, 1966, but for my purposes the Fillmore show fits my parameters better. It is possible that Country Joe opened as a solo act for the Dead on June 19, 1970 (at the Mid-South Coliseum in Memphis, TN), but the exact date of the initial end of Country Joe And The Fish has not yet been precisely determined.

Country Joe also opened for the "acoustic Grateful Dead" (with John Kahn on bass) on April 25 and May 22, 1981. At the May show (at the Fox-Warfield), McDonald was backed by a one-off group that evolved into the band High Noon (Norton Buffalo, Merl Saunders, Mike Hinton, Mickey Hart, Bobby Vega). In any case, Country Joe opened as a solo act in 1982 at the Moscone Center, at a Veteran's benefit headlined by the Dead and the Starship.

Barry Melton-guitar, vocals
Sep 4 '66, Fillmore: Country Joe And The Fish
Dec 31 '82, Oakland Auditorium: The Dinosaurs
Barry "The Fish" Melton was also in The Dinosaurs in 1982

The iconic Mouse and Kelly poster for the September 16-17, 1966 shows at the Avalon, with Oxford Circle opening for the Grateful Dead. Drummer Paul Whaley was a member of Oxford Circle, and later Blue Cheer
Paul Whaley-drums
Sep 16 '66, Avalon: Oxford Circle
Nov 10 '67, Shrine Exposition Hall, LA: Blue Cheer
Oxford Circle was a popular and excellent band from the Davis area. They played in a British Invasion style like the Yardbirds or Them, but they increasingly stretched out at places like the Avalon Ballroom (check out their excellent cd Live At The Avalon Ballroom 1966). Drummer Paul Whaley anchored their sound, but he was dissatisfied with the Circle. He secretly joined up with Blue Cheer in late 66, while they played their occasional Matrix gigs. In Spring '67, he went all in with them.

Elvin Bishop-guitar, vocals
Oct 7 '66, Fillmore: Paul Butterfield Blues Band
Jun 4 '78, County Stadium, Santa Barbara: Elvin Bishop Group
The Paul Butterfield Blues Band was hugely popular at the Fillmore in the beginning, not surprisingly since they were perhaps the most advanced American electric band in 1966. When the Dead and the Airplane were still figuring out how to play electrically, the Butterfield Blues Band was playing 25-minute instrumentals that brought down the house particularly when lead guitarist Mike Bloomfield would do his circus "fire-eater" trick.

Elvin Bishop was somewhat in the shadow of Bloomfield and Butterfield, but after Bishop left Butterfield, he moved to the Bay Area in 1968. The Elvin Bishop Group became a popular Bay Area attraction, ultimately going nationwide, which was how Bishop came to open for the Dead in Santa Barbara in 1978. The significance of that show was that one of Elvin's keyboard players was Melvin Seals, which was where Garcia first heard him play.

The Steven Catron handbill for the March 29-31, 1968 shows at the Carousel Ballroom, with Curley Cooke's Hurdy Gurdy Band opening for the Grateful Dead
Curley Cooke-guitar
Dec 23 '66, Avalon: Steve Miller Blues Band
Mar 29 '68, Carousel: Curley Cooke's Hurdy Gurdy Band
James 'Curley' Cooke (1944-2011) moved out from Wisconsin in late 1966 to join his friend Steve Miller's band. The original Steve Miller Blues Band got their big break when Chet Helms hired them to open for the Dead at the Avalon over a Christmas weekend. Cooke was a big part of the Miller Band sound, but he got quite ill in mid-1967 and had to return to Wisconsin for a while. Another old Miller pal, Boz Scaggs, was brought in to take his place, so Cooke was not on board when the Steve Miller Band released their first album and became Fillmore headliners.

However, by early 1968, Cooke was healthy and back in action, and leading his own group, Curley Cooke's Hurdy Gurdy Band, who opened for the Dead a number of times. Cooke was a well-respected blues guitarist throughout his life, ultimately settling in the Seattle area.

Jerry Miller-guitar, vocals
Dec 23 '66, Avalon: Moby Grape 
Dec 19 '69, Fillmore: Rhythm Dukes
 Jerry Miller was another charter member of Moby Grape, along with Skip Spence. Miller had moved to the Bay Area in 1965 from the Tacoma area, with his group The Frantics. One late night in Fall 1965, Miller wandered into a bar called The In Room in Belmont and heard a strange, interesting band called The Warlocks, and the two Jerries became friends.

Moby Grape had had one of its many disintegrations in 1969, and Miller and Don Stevenson (also from The Frantics and Moby Grape) had formed a group called The Rhythm Dukes. Stevenson had left by late '69, however, soon to be replaced by Bill Champlin, on hiatus from the Sons. However, when The Rhythm Dukes opened for the Dead at the "New Old Fillmore" (Graham having moved to Fillmore West by this time), Jerry Miller was fronting the Dukes by himself. Every decade or so, the Rhythm Dukes reform for a gig or two, just for the fun of it.

Chicken Hirsch-drums
Apr 9 '67, Longshoreman's Hall, SF: Country Joe And The Fish
Jul 14 '70, Euphoria Ballroom, San Rafael: Rubber Duck Company
Gary 'Chicken' Hirsch was a Berkeley drummer who apparently mostly played jazz prior to 1967. When Country Joe And The Fish were signed to Vanguard Records in late 1966, drummer John Francis Gunning was deemed too undisciplined for recording, and Gunning was replaced by Hirsch in December, 1966, just prior to the recording of the band's seminal debut album, Electric Music For The Mind And Body. As a result of Hirsch's late arrival, he had not played with the band when they had opened for the Grateful Dead on many occasions in 1966. Hirsch was in CJF when they shared a stage with the Dead at a Benefit concert at Longshoreman's Hall on April 9, 1967.

The first version of Country Joe And The Fish played it's last show on January 12, 1969 at Fillmore West. Joe McDonald and Barry Melton kept the band going with a variety of new members, but Hirsch moved on. Hirsch occasionally played drums with an ensemble called The Rubber Duck Company, who featured Mime Joe McCord. Although the membership of Rubber Duck was not fixed, a regular participant was organist Tom Constanten. Rubber Duck opened for the Dead at the Euphoria Ballroom in San Rafael, and it seems likely that Hirsch was the drummer.

Ralph Gleason's column from March 29, 1967 mentions the Dead and Charles Lloyd. Note the crack about the distant location, far from downtown
Jack DeJohnette-drums
March 28 '67, The Rock Garden, San Francisco: Charles Lloyd
Apr 9 '70, Fillmore West: Miles Davis
Even jazz musicians found themselves opening for the Grateful Dead more than once. Jack DeJohnette is a phenomenal musician and an incredible drummer--also a fine piano player, I should add--and is one of the stellar jazz musicians of the 60s and 70s. DeJohnette first came to prominence as the drummer in the Charles Lloyd Quartet, itself a great quartet that featured Lloyd on tenor sax and flute, Keith Jarrett on piano and Ron McClure on bass. Among many other things, Lloyd was perhaps the first established jazz musician to regularly play rock ballrooms like the Fillmore and the Avalon without compromising his music. 

In the Spring of 1967, a new rock club opened in the Excelsior District in San Francisco, far from downtown, called The Rock Garden. The Rock Garden was an interesting venture, but it did not last long, and its only real legacy was some great posters. For a week in 1967, however, the Charles Lloyd Quartet opened for the Dead at the Rock Garden, and DeJohnette was all but certainly with the band. Lloyd was reputed to have jammed with the Dead during that week, but no tapes survive.

By 1969, DeJohnette made it to the New York Yankees of the jazz world, as he became the drummer for Miles Davis. DeJohnette had the daunting task of replacing Tony Williams, but he was up to the challenge. Miles, too, started getting interested not only in playing rock venues but in playing loud electric jazz, inspired by Sly and Hendrix. DeJohnette was up to the challenge, and the 69-70 Davis groups with him on drums were as fine as any of his great 60s ensembles.

From April 9-12, 1970, Miles Davis opened for the Grateful Dead at Fillmore West, much to the dismay of the Dead. Parts of the April 10 show were used for the live Miles Davis album Black Beauty, initially only released in Japan. Besides Miles and DeJohnette, the group had Steve Grossman on soprano sax, Chick Corea on electric piano, Dave Holland on electric bass and Airto on percussion, every one of them a titan. [update from original post-thanks to Commenter runonguinness]

"Buffalo" Bruce Barlow-bass
Apr 29 '67, Earl Warren Showgrounds, Santa Barbara: Captain Speed
Aug 29 '69, Family Dog On The Great Highway: Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen
[update]; Ugly Things #40 has the complete story of the Santa Barbara band Turquoise, known under various names, including Captain Speed. Bruce Barlow was the bassist for Captain Speed when they opened shows for many bands at the Santa Barbara County Fairgrounds. They changed their name from Captain Speed to Turquoise because record companies thought Captain Speed was "too druggy."

Barlow ended up backing some Chicago blues musicians in 1969, which is how he met Billy C Farlow and Steve (West Virginia Creeper) Davis, who both ended up rejoining their old Ann Arbor bandmates in Commander Cody and the Lost Planet Airmen. When the original bassist didn't work out, Buffalo Bruce got the call.

Skip Prokop-drums
May 5 '67, Fillmore: The Paupers
Jan 2 '70, Fillmore East: Lighthouse
Drummer Skip Prokop had been a founding member in one of Toronto's leading psychedelic groups, The Paupers. In late 1966, The Paupers first Canadian album was released in the States on MGM. The Paupers were picked up by influential manager Albert Grossman. The band played some well-received shows opening for the Jefferson Airplane at the Cafe Au Go Go, and they looked like they might be Canada's Next Big Thing. Grossman helped The Paupers get dates at The Fillmore, and later at Monterey Pop. However, The Paupers made little impression at Monterey and their star quickly burned out.

Some years later, Prokop was a key member in another popular Canadian band, Lighthouse, who seemed like they might make it in the States. Lighthouse was much more orchestrated than The Paupers, falling broadly into the category of contemporary bands like Chicago Transit Authority. Lighthouse opened for the Grateful Dead at the Fillmore East on January 2-3, 1970. However, while Lighthouse continued to be quite popular in Canada, they never broke through on our side of the border.

Doug Metzner-bass
June 12 '67, The Cheetah, New York, NY: Group Image
Sep 26 '69, Fillmore East: Country Joe and The Fish
Group Image were a sort of New York variation on Ken Kesey's Merry Pranksters. They were a band, a light show, and a crowd of like minded partisans all in one. Group Image played a lot of free or underground events in New York during this period, although they also provided light shows, so not every poster with "Group Image" is necessarily a band performance. I'm not sure what they sounded like. They opened for a number of Grateful Dead shows, first at a benefit at The Cheetah on 53rd and Broadway, on June 12, 1967 (the poster can be seen here).

Group Image bassist Doug Metzner ended up joining a later version of Country Joe and The Fish in mid-1969, and he played at Woodstock with them. Thus Metzner was in Country Joe and The Fish when they played with the Dead at Fillmore East on September 26-27, 1969. [update from original post. Thanks to Commenter posterrevolution].

Stephen Stills-guitar
Nov 10 '67, Shrine Exposition Hall, LA-Buffalo Springfield
Jul 16 '90, Rich Stadium, Buffalo, NY-Crosby, Stills and Nash
Stephen Stills hardly needs an introduction. In 1967, the Buffalo Springfield were probably a lot bigger than the Grateful Dead, by any reckoning. In the early 70s, Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young were bigger than pretty much anyone. Yet by 1990, Crosby, Stills and Nash, while still big, were opening for the Dead at a baseball stadium (update from the original post-thanks to Commenter PosterRevolution).

Joe Lala-percussion
Apr 12, '68, Thee Image, Miami, FL: Blues Image
Jun 30, '79, Portland International Raceway, Portland, OR: McGuinn/Clark/Hillman
Thee Image was Miami's version of the Fillmore, a converted bowling alley on 18330 Collins Avenue. Thee Image is not widely remembered outside of Miami, but it was an important part of the circuit for the year it was open, and it remains fondly remembered by people who went there (to the extent their memories are intact, of course).

The house band at Thee Image was a band called The Motions, from Tampa. They relocated to Miami and helped run the club, while opening almost all the shows as well. The Motions changed their name to Blues Image as an homage to both their venue and the Blues Project. Blues Image had two drummers, one of whom was Joe Lala, who played congas and other percussion as well as traps. The Blues Image opened for the Grateful Dead when they played two weekends at Thee Image, from April 12-21. 

Following the suggestions of both Frank Zappa and Eric Burdon, Blues Image moved to Los Angeles in 1969, soon after Thee Image was shut down by the powers that be. Blues Image had a fairly big hit with the song "Ride Captain Ride," but they broke up by 1972 or so. Joe Lala, meanwhile, had become a studio regular, and even an actor. Lala toured regularly with Stephen Stills, and Lala was a member of the group Manassas when Stills and Chris Hillman were both members. Thus when Roger McGuinn, Gene Clark and Chris Hillman had a re-boot of sorts, Lala was part of the road band.

The Grateful Dead headlined an outdoor show at Portland International Raceway on June 30,1979, supported by the David Bromberg Band and the McGuinn/Clark/Hillman band (thanks to astute Commenter runonguinness for pointing this out). Lala was surely in the MGH band, as he was with them at the Capitol Theater the week before (the MGH June 22 '79 show is accessible on Wolfgang's Vault). [update from the original post]

The poster for the August 22-23, 1987 shows at Angels Camp in Calaveras County, CA. David Lindley and Jorge Calderon were both in El-Rayo X, and both had opened for the Grateful Dead in other bands
David Lindley-guitar, vocals
Aug 21 '68, Fillmore West: Kaleidoscope
Aug 22 '87, Fairgrounds, Angels Camp, CA: El-Rayo X
Calling David Lindley a guitarist or even a "multi-instrrumentalist" gives only the palest reflection of his musical powers. Lindley is the master of anything with strings, amplified or unamplified. He was the banjo champion at Los Angeles's Ash Grove for five years running (through 1967, after which he was declared a lifetime judge), and he "went electric" with the groundbreaking group Kaleidoscope. Lindley excels at playing all manner of instruments, including self-constructed instruments with the neck of one and the body of another instrument. There is nothing like Mr. Dave in the musical firmament.

Kaleidoscope was a unique, powerful group. The band practically invented what we know as "World Music," twenty years or so before the world was ready for it. Kaleidoscope put out four fine albums, long before the music world (other than Jimmy Page) was ready for it. Throughout the 1970s, Lindley was the principal musical collaborator for Terry Reid and then Jackson Browne. He also toured and recorded with Crosby and Nash, Warren Zevon, Linda Ronstadt, Ry Cooder and many others.

In the 1980s, Lindley formed the great band El-Rayo X, who played a unique brand of high energy, uptempo reggae, with songs by contemporary songwriters. El-Rayo X released a number of fine albums as well, but as exceptional as they were live, they could not break through to the next level. Nonetheless, in 1987 Lindley found himself with El-Rayo X, opening for the Dead again, as they would do the next year at Laguna Seca. However, save for the occasional reunion, El-Rayo X did not survive the 80s and Lindley has largely played in solo or duo formats since then.

Gregg Thomas-drums
Nov 15, 1968, Gill Coliseum, Oregon State U., Corvallis, OR: Mint Tattoo
Jun 30, 1979, Portland International Raceway, Portland, OR: McGuinn/Clark/Hillman
Mint Tatoo was a psychedelic band that formed in early 1968. The members were mostly from the Sacramento area, but they are generally remembered as a Bay Area band. They were a trio: Bruce Stephens on guitar, Ralph Burns Kellogg on organ and bass, and Gregg Thomas on drums. Mint Tattoo put out an album on Dot Records in 1968, which wasn't bad. The group is mostly remembered, if at all, for having two members who went and joined Blue Cheer, as Stephens and Kellogg joined the group for half of 1969's New!Improved! album.

Mint Tattoo played the usual West Coast gigs in 1968, and on November 15 they opened for the Grateful Dead at Oregon State in Corvallis, at the basketball arena. Now, the poster for this show exists, and it fits their touring schedule, and there seems to be memories of the show. However, while I can't absolutely confirm the event, it seems pretty likely that the show was played, and that Mint Tattoo opened (don't bother with Deadlists--I'm the only source).

The only member of Mint Tattoo not to join Blue Cheer, Gregg Thomas, seems to have gone on to play with a wide variety of groups, ultimately moving to Los Angeles and becoming a session man. Since Thomas was Roger McGuinn's drummer in 1977 when he had the short-lived group Thunderbyrd, he seems to have stayed in the chair for when Gene Clark and Chris Hillman re-joined McGuinn. Thus Thomas, too, was opening for the Grateful Dead with a second group when they played Portland Raceway in 1979.

I'm aware that Roger McGuinn's drummer only has one "g" (Greg Thomas, as opposed to Gregg), but I have looked into it and I think Gregg and Greg Thomas were the same guy. He seems to have retired as an active musician some years ago. [update from the original post]

Martin Fierro-tenor sax
Feb 28 '69, Fillmore West: Shades Of Joy
Jun 9 '73, RFK, Washington, DC: Doug Sahm 
Martin Fierro (1942-2008) is best remembered by Deadheads both as a member of the Garcia/Saunders band and the Legion Of Mary in 1974-75, and also as a participant in a brief experiment in September 1973 when the Grateful Dead tried touring with a horn section. Fierro had also played on the Hooteroll? sessions in late 1970. Fierro was from El Paso, TX, and according to him, Garcia met him when Fierro was jamming with conga players in Golden Gate Park. Fierro's band Shades Of Joy opened for the Grateful Dead in early 1969, but neither Garcia nor Fierro ever mentioned that.

Shades Of Joy was a sort of "jam-band", featuring a front line of Fierro, guitarist Jackie King and organist Jymm Young. Shades Of Joy only played intermittent gigs, but they were highly regarded by local musicians. A little-known bit of Fillmore history was that there were often additional bands "not on the poster" at Fillmore West on Friday and Saturday nights, who would play an opening set. Ralph Gleason favorably reviewed Shades Of Joy's set when they opened for the Grateful Dead on February 28, 1969, on the legendary weekend when the band recorded most of Live/Dead(Shades Of Joy also opened for the Dead at a March 3, 1971 benefit at Fillmore West).

Fierro also worked regularly with fellow Texan Doug Sahm. Fierro was probably part of Sahm's band when Sahm opened for the Dead and the Allman Brothers at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC on June 9, 1973. In any case, Doug Sahm opened all the shows in September when Fierro (and trumpeter Joe Ellis) joined the Dead onstage, so Fierro definitely opened for the Dead in two different groups.

An ad for the May 16, 1970 show for the Jimi Hendrix/Grateful Dead/Steve Miller Band/Cactus show at Temple Stadium in Philadelphia. Two members of the Frumious Bandersnatch were in the Steve Miller Band at the time, and guitarist Jim McCarty was in Cactus
Bobby Winkelmann-guitar, vocals
Ross Valory-bass
Mar 1 '69, Fillmore West: Frumious Bandersnatch
May 16 '70, Temple Stadium, Philadelphia, PA: Steve Miller Band
Frumious Bandersnatch was a rare 60s band from Lafayette, in Contra Costa County, that had made it through the Caldecott Tunnel to play San Francisco and Berkeley. They were a popular local band in the late 60s, booked by Bill Graham's Millard Agency, and they opened at places like the Fillmore West on many occasions. On the legendary weekend at Fillmore West when most of Live/Dead was recorded, Frumious Bandersnatch replaced the Sir Douglas Quintet for the Saturday and Sunday shows (March 1 and 2), because Sahm was either ill or had a dispute of some kind with Bill Graham.

In the Fall of 1968, Frumious Bandersnatch had opened a Free Concert in Palo Alto that had the Steve Miller Band as headliners. This turned out to be a fortuitous meeting, one of the reasons I was so interested in how different musicians met at concerts. The Frumious lads met Miller, and in mid-1969, when Frumious Bandersnatch finally disintegrated, they mostly ended up joining the Steve Miller Band. Guitarist Bobby Winkelmann was the first to join in late '69, followed afterwards by bassist Ross Valory. I am not precisely certain of the exact dates, but certainly Winkelmann and likely Valory were in the Steve Miller Band when they played with the Grateful Dead at Temple Stadium on May 16, 1970. Drummer John King would join the next year, and guitarist David Denny join in the mid-1970s, but I don't think either of them were in the constantly rotating Miller Band lineup any other times he played with the Grateful Dead (such as 1992).

Chris Hillman-bass, vocals
Apr 4 '69, Avalon: Flying Burrito Brothers
Jun 30, 1979, Portland International Raceway, Portland, OR: McGuinn/Clark/Hillman
Chris Hillman was a founding member of The Byrds. In 1968, he started the Flying Burrito Brothers with Gram Parsons, Sneeky Pete Kleinow and Chris Etheridge. Hillman and the others played with the Burritos (with ex-Byrd Michael Clarke on drums) when they opened for the Dead at the Avalon in April 1969. Some of the Burritos Avalon sets were released on an archival cd.

Hillman left the Burritos in 1972, and went on Stephen Stills Manassas, an excellent band indeed. After two fine albums, he joined the Souther/Hillman/Furay Band, an effort to create an "Eagles Mark 2" that did not succeed. After a few modest solo albums, he ended up working with his old Byrd-mates Roger McGuinn and Gene Clark. The Byrds still had seminal status in the 1970s, and McGuinn-Clark-Hillman got major support from Capitol and a lot of attention, which is how they came to be opening for the Grateful Dead in Portland.

The arc of Chris Hillman's career emphasizes the perspective this post is looking to reflect. Hillman, an ex-bluegrasser himself, was a founding member of America's first folk-rock band. The Byrds were far more important than the Grateful Dead, and long before them. Yet nearly 15 years later, Hillman was on his fifth band, and the Dead were still together. [update from the original post]

Chris Etheridge-bass
Apr 4 '69, Avalon: Flying Burrito Brothers
Sep 2 '78, Giants Stadium, E. Rutherford, NJ: Willie Nelson
Chris Etheridge (1947-2012) saw himself as a rhythm-and-blues bassist, but he is best known for playing country rock. Etheridge was in the original, seminal version of the Flying Burrito Brothers, with Sneeky Pete, Chris Hillman and Gram Parsons. Etheridge played with the Burritos (with ex-Byrd Michael Clarke on drums) when they opened for the Dead at the Avalon in April 1969. Some of the Burritos Avalon sets were released on an archival cd.

Although Etheridge mostly played sessions, by the late 1970s (after yet another stint in the Burritos in 1975), Etheridge ended up as a regular member of Willie Nelson's band.  Etheridge's tenure with Nelson is confusing, since Nelson seems to have had two bass players, Etheridge and Bee Spears. Whether they alternated sets, alternated tours, or what has never been clear to me. Thus I can't yet say for a fact that Etheridge actually played with Willie when he opened for the Dead at Giants Stadium.

Jim McCarty-guitar
Jun 21 '69, Fillmore East: Buddy Miles Express
May 16 '70, Temple U. Stadium, Philadelphia, PA: Cactus
Guitarist Jim McCarty had been a member of Mitch Ryder and The Detroit Wheels, who had scored big with a number of classic hits, including "Jenny Take A Ride" (1965) and "Devil With A Blue Dress" (1967). McCarty's playing epitomized a certain side of the Detroit sound, rocking hard but with a definite soul touch. By the end of '68, McCarty had ended up in the Buddy Miles Express, joining the band after a jam at the Whisky in Los Angeles, shortly after the Express had arisen out of the Electric Flag.

In mid-'69, the Buddy Miles Express was a surprisingly influential band. They had a funky backbeat and interesting horn arrangements, but overlain with a psychedelic edge. They had caught the ear of both Jimi Hendrix (who produced their debut album) and Miles Davis (who wanted Jack DeJohnette, his own drummer, to use his awesome technique in Buddy's funky style). However, save for their hit "Them Changes," the Buddy Miles Express did not have the songs to match their chops.

By 1970, though the Buddy Miles Express rolled on, McCarty had joined forces with bassist Tim Bogert and drummer Carmine Appice in the group Cactus. Bogert and Appice had been in the Vanilla Fudge, and they had planned to form a group with Jeff Beck and Rod Stewart on the Fudge's demise. However, Beck had gotten injured in an auto accident, so Bogert and Appice formed Cactus with McCarty and singer Peter French. Cactus rocked hard, in true 70s boogiemeister style, but they too never got over the top.

Joey Covington-drums
Jun 27 '69, County Fairgrounds, Santa Rosa: Hot Tuna
Apr 15 '70, Winterland: Jefferson Airplane
Joey Covington was yet another member of the Airplane crowd who played with the Dead in more than one ensemble. Covington had opened for the Dead as a member of Hot Tuna in Santa Rosa in June 1969 (billed as 'Jorma Kaukonen, Jack Casady and Joey Covington'). Covington's tenure in Tuna gave him the opportunity to take over the drum chair with the Jefferson Airplane. Spencer Dryden's last show with the Airplane was at the Family Dog on February 4, 1970. Covington had already played some shows the weekend before with the Airplane. Covington was in the Airplane when they played at Winterland in April 1970.

Lance Dickerson-drums
Aug 29 '69, Family Dog On The Great Highway: Commander Cody And His Lost Planet Airmen
Jun 30 '79, Portland International Raceway, Portland, OR: David Bromberg Band
Lance Dickerson had been drumming for Charlie Musselwhite working out of the East Bay. However, he had met a singer from Michigan, Billy C Farlow, who was working with Sam Lay.  When Farlow's Ann Arbor pals moved to Berkeley in Summer 1969, Dickerson signed on with them. Dickerson was the drummer for Commander Cody And His Lost Planet Airmen from Summer '69 through the demise of the band in 1976. Cody and the Airmen opened for the Dead many times, but the very first time was a weekend at the Family Dog on August 29-30, 1969.

David Bromberg had relocated from Greenwich Village to Marin County about 1972. He had many Grateful Dead connections, and indeed Garcia, Lesh, Kreutzmann and Keith Godchaux had even recorded some tracks for his albums. However, the only time I know that Bromberg actually opened for the Dead was at Portland in June '79. Bromberg had a fantastic band of diverse musicians, with Lance Dickerson usually holding down the drums. [update from the original post]

Papa John Creach-electic violin
October 4, 1970; Winterland: Hot Tuna
September 28, 1975, Golden Gate Park: Jefferson Starship
John Creach (1918-1994) had become friends with Joey Covington in about 1967. Covington introduced Papa John to the Airplane crowd, and his distinctive, rhythmic playing added a unique flavor to Hot Tuna's sound. By 1971, Creach had joined the Airplane. Although Papa John stepped away from Hot Tuna around 1972, he was still a member of the Jefferson Starship in 1974-75.

Mike Finnegan-organ, vocals
Dec 21 '70, Pepperland, San Rafael: Jerry Hahn Brotherhood
Jul 16 '90, Rich Stadium, Buffalo, NY: Crosby, Stills and Nash
There aren't a lot of working rock musicians who went to college on a basketball scholarship, but there aren't a lot musicians like Mike Finnegan anyway. The 6'6"Finnegan went to the University of Kansas on a basketball scholarship, no small feat. He played in bands in the Midwest, and recorded with a group called The Serfs. He ended up in San Francisco with a fantastic group called the Jerry Hahn Brotherhood, led by Jerry Hahn a transplanted guitarist with Kansas roots as well. The Jerry Hahn Brotherhood put out one terrific, hard-to-find album, now mostly known for the song "Captain Bobby Stout," recorded later by Manfred Mann.

The Jerry Hahn Brotherhood was a hard-working band who played all over the Bay Area. They knocked everyone out whereever they played, but they never broke through. In any case, the Jerry Hahn Brotherhood opened for the Grateful Dead at Pepperland on December 21, 1970 (a show dealt with in detail by one of my fellow scholars). The Brotherhood slowly fell apart, and Finnegan went on to play with a variety of groups, including Big Brother, Dave Mason, the DKF Band, Stephen Stills and others. I myself saw him with Dave Mason and DKF (for Les Dudek/Jim Krueger/Mike Finnegan), and he was great both times.

As a result, of Finnegan's stint with Stills, he was a regular member of Crosby, Stills and Nash's touring band. He was not always on every tour, but according to Commenter posterrevolution, Finnegan was on the keys when CSN opened for the Dead in Buffalo. In Finnegan's case, he was probably a dozen bands down the line, and since he had been one of the most talented organ players and singers in the Bay Area, it had to engender at least a brief moment of reflection.

Pete Sears-bass, piano
Dec 31, 1970, Winterland: Stoneground
Sep 28, 1975, Golden Gate Park: Jefferson Starship
Pete Sears was one of a number of English rock musicians in the 1960s who relocated to California in the 1970s. Sears connection to San Francisco had a very 60s element of randomness to it. Sears had played in some obscure psychedelic London outfits. In 1968, Sears became friendly with guitarist Leigh Stephens, who had left Blue Cheer and moved to London to live on a houseboat on the Thames River. Sears probably met Stephens through drummer Mickey Waller, who played on Stephens' album Red Weather.

Sears had agreed to come to California if Stephens could get a band together. In 1970, Stephens had a deal with KSAN founder Tom Donahue, and Sears and Waller came to California to record the Silver Metre album with Stephens and singer Jack Reynolds. Silver Metre played one weekend of shows at Fillmore West (July 9-12, 1970), but then the band disintegrated and Sears returned to London. However, Donahue's next project, 'The Medicine Ball Caravan," had made its way to England by August, with Alembic doing the sound. Sears joined the Caravan's house band Stoneground for their one show in England, at an outdoor festival, and then helped them record an unreleased album produced by Betty Cantor.

Sears returned to California with Stoneground, and seems to have played the 1970 Winterland New Year's show with them, when they opened for the Dead. Sears then went back and forth between London and California, playing with the likes of Long John Baldry and Rod Stewart in London. Finally, in 1974, Sears joined the Jefferson Starship and became a permanent Californian.

David Nelson-guitar, vocals
Nov 11, 1971 Municipal Auditorium, Atlanta, GA: New Riders Of The Purple Sage
Feb 7 '89, Kaiser Convention Center, Oakland: Al Rapone and The Zydeco Express
Of course, Nelson's first opportunity to open for the Grateful Dead was with the then-unnamed New Riders Of The Purple Sage at Longshoreman's Hall on July 16, 1969. However, according to my own set of criteria, that doesn't count for my list, since Garcia and Mickey Hart were both members of the group at the time.  The first New Riders show that fits my self-imposed criteria was Buddy Cage's debut with the band, replacing Garcia, in Atlanta in November 1971.

Nelson had a fairly fallow 80s, musically speaking. For some years he played guitar with Al Rapone and The Zydeco Express. Rapone opened for the Dead at a Mardi Gras show in Oakland in 1989.

David Grisman-mandolin, electric piano
Dec 12, 1972 Winterland: Grateful Dead/Rowan Brothers
May 19, 1992 Cal Expo Amphitheater, Sacramento, CA: Grateful Dead/David Grisman Quintet
David Grisman had been an old friend of Garcia's, dating back to a Summer 1964 meeting at a bluegrass festival in Union Grove, PA. Grisman also wrote the first review of the Warlocks, back in 1965, for Sing Out! magazine. Grisman ended up as the producer of a duo called The Rowan Brothers, featuring Chris and Lorin Rowan, the younger brothers of another old friend, Peter Rowan. Grisman produced the duo's Columbia album debut, and was a member of their live band as well. The Rowan Brothers opened for the Grateful Dead at Winterland on December 12, 1972. Grisman actually played keyboards in the band, although he did take an electric mandolin solo on one song.

Nearly 20 years, later The David Grisman Quintet opened a Rex Benefit show at Cal Expo. I presume he just played mandolin, and didn't take an electric piano solo.

Mickey Thomas-vocals
Jun 4 '78, County Stadium, Santa Barbara: Elvin Bishop Group
Jan 13 '80, Oakland Coliseum Arena: Jefferson Starship
Singer Mickey Thomas was in the Elvin Bishop Group for a few years, singing lead on their big 1976 hit "Fooled Around And Fell In Love." Thomas was with Bishop when they opened for the Dead in Santa Barbara in 1978. Thomas' Bay Area connections helped to give him the opportunity to join the Jefferson Starship, with the daunting task of replacing both Grace Slick and Marty Balin. Thomas was on board when the Starship opened for the Dead at an Oakland Coliseum Arena benefit in Ja

Roger McGuinn-guitar, vocals
Jun 30, 1979, Portland International Raceway, Portland, OR: McGuinn/Clark/Hillman
Jun 22, 1991, Soldier Field, Chicago, IL: Roger McGuinn
The Byrds had shared many a rock festival bill with the Grateful Dead in the 60s, but how much the bands actually saw of each other at those events is uncertain. It would be interesting to know that, in fact, since Clarence White and Jerry Garcia were good friends, but those details remain obscure. Nonetheless, by my criteria the Byrds never shared a bill with the Grateful Dead. Thus the '79 Portland show would have counted as the first time that McGuinn opened for the Dead.

On June 22, 1991, the first time the Grateful Dead headlined Soldier Field in Chicago, McGuinn opened the show. If indeed he opened as a solo act, that would have been daunting indeed, but certainly McGuinn's 30 years of experience would have prepared him. Still, it had to be odd for McGuinn--in 1965 The Byrds were America's answer to the Beatles, and by 1991 they were a long-gone oldies act, while the Dead were bigger than ever. [update from the original post--thanks to Commenter runonguinness for pointing out the Jun 79/June 91 McGuinn performances]

Levon Helm-drums, vocals
Jul 28 '73, Grand Prix Racecourse, Watkins Glen, NY: The Band
Sep 6 '80, State Fairgrounds, Lewiston, ME: Levon Helm and The Cate Brothers
The Band's debut album Music From Big Pink had had a huge influence on rock musicians in the late 1960s, and the Grateful Dead were no exception. Robert Hunter in particular liked the old America evoked by The Band, and apparently the songwriting for Workingman's Dead was the result. When the Dead and the Allman Brothers needed a third act for the enormous Watkins Glen festival (and Leon Russell was unavailable), both groups were apparently thrilled to have The Band on the bill. Watkins Glen was the first of several times The Band would play with the Dead, in both their 70s and their 80s incarnations.

After The Band broke up in 1976, all of the members went their separate ways. Levon Helm, perhaps the most iconic voice of The Band, toured with Earl and Ernie Cate and their group. More than the other members of the group, Levon liked touring around. Thus he and the Cate Brothers were one of the opening acts at the relatively large show at the Maine State Fairgrounds in Lewiston on September 6, 1980. [update from the original post--thanks to Commenter DLeopold]

Earl Cate-guitar, vocals
Ernie Cate-keyboards, vocals
Ron Eoff-bass
Terry Cagle-drums
Sep 6 '80, State Fairgrounds, Lewiston, ME: Levon Helm and The Cate Brothers
Oct 22 '83, Carrier Dome, Syracuse, NY: The Band
Although Levon Helm was a member of The Hawks when they hooked up with Bob Dylan in 1965, he left the group for a variety of reasons shortly afterwards. As a result, the legendary 1966 tours of Bob Dylan and The Hawks (later "The Band") actually featured different drummers in his place, including Mickey Jones and Sandy Konikoff. During that time, Levon returned to Arkansas and played a few gigs as the drummer of The Cate Brothers Band, back in Fayetteville. Earl and Ernie Cate had been working musicians since the 1950s, so they went way back with Levon.

Around 1979, when Levon started touring as a solo act, he hired the Cate Brothers Band to back him. By this time, the band included guitarist Earl and keyboard player Ernie, along with bassist Ron Eoff and drummer Terry Cagle. Cagle was Levon's nephew. Starting in 1975, The Cate Brothers had released four albums on Asylum Records, but they hadn't broken through. Generally speaking, when they backed Levon, they opened for him and played a set of their own, and then backed Levon for his set. With another drummer on board, Levon was free to play mandolin and guitar as well as double up on drums.

The Band had broken up in 1976, after The Last Waltz, but all of the members other than Robbie Robertson were interested in re-forming. After years of refusal by Robbie, the other members finally decided to go back on the road without him. The road configuration of the 1983 edition of The Band had the remaining four members of The Band and the entire Cate Brothers Band. With so many instrumentalists on stage, The Band members were free to double on the various instruments that they used on their recordings. Thus Band fans were treated to live performances by Levon Helm on mandolin, Rick Danko on fiddle and guitar and Garth Hudson on saxophones, for example. At times, however, the 1983 Band went with a two-drum, two-bass, three-keyboard configuration (plus Earl Cate and sometimes Jim Weider on guitar).

The Band were still a big deal in 1983, and the Grateful Dead made sure to book them as openers at a number of outdoor shows in the mid-80s. I believe the Carrier Dome was the first (thanks to Commenter ricepaddy7 for pointing this out).

David Crosby-guitar, vocals
Dec 31 '86, Kaiser Convention Center, Oakland, CA: David Crosby
Jul 16 '90, Rich Stadium, Buffalo, NY: Crosby, Stills and Nash
David Crosby was an old friend of the Grateful Dead, going back to the 1960s. However, save for a few rock festivals, Crosby never shared a stage with the Dead until New Year's Eve 1986. Crosby had undergone some very difficult years, with his drug and legal problems taking their toll. Previous to this show, Crosby's prior booking had been an 11-month stint in a Texas prison. He came out at the end of the year, and the Dead eased him back into performing with the opening slot at their New Year's show.

A few years later, Crosby was back on board with Stills and Nash, and so when CSN opened at Rich Stadium, Crosby was yet another band member (besides Stills and Mike Finnegan) who was opening for the Dead in his second group (update from the original post--thanks to Commenter jfw)

A poster for the September 22, 1968 concert at the Del Mar Fairgounds, with the Grateful Dead, Phoenix, and many of their friends
Phoenix: Disambiguate It Yourself
My classification system of groups fails when it comes to the dense matrix of bands that included the Vipers (from Palo Alto), The Universal Parking Lot, who evolved into Phoenix, and Mt. Rushmore. You can decide for yourself how they should be distributed. In any case, the various members of these interlocking bands opened for the Grateful Dead a number of times in different configurations.
Warren Phillips-guitar, vocals
Stan Muther-guitar
Thom Dotzler-keyboards
Ed Levin-drums
Jef Jaisun-bass, guitar, vocals
Dec 10 '65, Fillmore: The Vipers (Phillips and Muther)
Feb 10 '67, Santa Venetia Armory, San Rafael: Blue House Basement (Muther and Phillips)
Jul 21 '67, Continental Ballroom, Santa Clara: Phoenix (Muther)
Aug 28 '67, Golden Gate Park: Mt. Rushmore (Phillips, Dotzler and Levin)
Sep 22 '68, Fairgrounds, Del Mar, CA: Phoenix (Phillips, Muther, Dotzler, Jaisun and Levin)
Aug 29 '69, Family Dog: Phoenix (Muther, Dotzler, Phillips and Levin)
Dec 19 '69, Fillmore: Jef Jaisun (solo)
The Vipers were from Palo Alto, and they played at the Mime Troupe Benefit (Appeal II) in December of 1965. Ralph Gleason mistakenly identified them as the VIPS, a local dance band, and that mistake has persisted ever since. Members of The Vipers had attended the Big Beat Acid Test in Palo Alto, although they did not perform. Universal Parking Lot, who evolved into Phoenix, played throughout the September 30-October 2, 1966 Acid Test weekend at San Francisco State.

The interrelationships between Phoenix and Mt. Rushmore are too complex to go into here, and are best analyzed in Tree form. Some of the shows I have listed above somewhat violate my own criteria with respect to Festival shows and free concerts, but that is part of the disambiguation effort required.

Jerry Garcia Bonus Round
A few musicians opened for both The Grateful Dead and Jerry Garcia.

John Ciambotti-bass
May 19 '66, Avalon: Grateful Dead/The Outfit
Dec 19 '75, Winterland: Jerry Garcia Band/Clover
Bassist John Ciambotti (1943-2010) had been in The Outfit, an obscure band that was part of the original tiny psychedelic scene surrounding the Avalon and the Fillmore. The most notorious member of The Outfit was guitarist Bobby Beausoleil, whom after a stint in the group Electrik Chamber Orkustra, joined the Manson Family. Beausoleil is currently serving a life prison sentence for a murder committed in 1969.

When The Outfit split up, Ciambotti joined with members of The Tiny Hearing Aid Company to form the group Clover. The band put out a number of fine albums on Fantasy (in the 60s) and Mercury(in the 70s), but they never broke through. When Clover was at a particularly low ebb in December of 1975, they opened for the Jerry Garcia Band, Kingfish and Keith and Donna at Winterland. Clover went on to record some fine albums on Mercury, and Ciambotti was on board when members of Clover backed Elvis Costello on My Aim Is True. Although Ciambotti continued to play music, he ultimately became a full-time chiropractor.

Boz Scaggs-guitar, vocals
May 17, 1968, Shrine Auditorium, LA: Grateful Dead/Steve Miller Band
February 25, 1971, Fillmore West: New Riders Of The Purple Sage/Boz Scaggs
Boz Scaggs had been a friend of Steve Miller's in prep school in Texas. In the mid-60s, he had moved to Europe, and even recorded a little known album in Sweden. When guitarist Curley Cooke got ill, however, the Steve Miller Band needed a replacement, and Miller invited Scaggs back from Europe. Scaggs joined the Miller Band in July of 1967. Scaggs played on the first two classic Miller Band albums, Children Of The Future and Sailor. Scaggs was a member of the group through the end of 1968.

Starting in early 1969, Scaggs went solo. By 1971, with his second solo album under his belt and a fine band, Scaggs was able to share a bill with Jerry Garcia and the New Riders Of The Purple Sage at Fillmore West. Scaggs would go on to have considerable success in the mid-1970s.

An ad for the Howard Wales-Jerry Garcia show at Villanova U on Jan 23, 1972, from the November 16, 1971 Philadelphia Inquirer. Mahavishnu Orchestra, with Jerry Goodman on electric violin, opened the show
Jerry Goodman-electric violin
Dec 4 '69, Fillmore West: Grateful Dead/The Flock
Jan 23 '72, Villanova U., Radnor, PA: Howard Wales with Jerry Garcia/Mahavishnu Orchestra
In late 1968 and early 1969, Columbia Records released several albums with a hybrid rock/jazz sound, to make it seem like it was "The Next Big Thing." This wasn't a bad strategy, as both Blood, Sweat & Tears and Chicago Transit Authority were huge hits. Lost in the shuffle was an interesting Chicago group called The Flock. The Flock had a horn section and a guitar, but their lead instrument was electric violin, played by Jerry Goodman. Goodman's violin both augmented the horn section and stood out as a soloist, giving the band a unique sound. The Flock's self-titled debut album was released in mid-1969. The Flock toured the United States steadily, opening for the Grateful Dead a number of times. The first of those times was a four night stand in December 1969 at Fillmore West that corresponded with the Altamont debacle.

Sometime after The Flock released their second album, Dinosaur Swamps, in mid-1970, Columbia president Clive Davis 'raided' The Flock, to acquire Goodman's services for John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra. One of the very first Mahavishnu tours was on the East Coast in January 1972, opening for Howard Wales and his special guest Jerry Garcia. The tour began at the gym at Villanova University on January 22, 1972, in Radnor, near Bryn Mawr (albeit at the Villanova stop on Paoli train line), just west of Philadelphia.

Lorin Rowan-guitar, vocals
Dec 12 '72 Winterland: Grateful Dead/Rowan Brothers
Sep 7, 1981 Concord Pavilion, Concord, CA: Jerry Garcia Band/The Edge
Lorin Rowan was one of the Rowan Brothers who opened for the Grateful Dead at Winterland, with producer David Grisman as the band's keyboard player. Some years later, Lorin was the lead guitarist in The Edge, an interesting reggae-rock band who never managed to go national.

Rick Danko-bass, vocals
Jul 28 '73, Watkins Glen Grand Prix Racecourse, Watkins Glen, NY: Allman Brothers/Grateful Dead/The Band
Dec 2 '83, Orpheum Theater, Boston, MA: Jerry Garcia Band/Rick Danko
Danko opened for Garcia a few times as a solo act, so combined with Watkins Glen, that gave him a Dead/Garcia double.

For me, the realization that Jerry Goodman had opened for the Dead and then Garcia in two different groups in 1969 and '72 set me on the path to the line of research that led to this post. Musicians, particularly before the rise of email and cell phones, led itinerant lives, traveling from town to town. For most of them, their bands periodically changed, and I was struck by the idea that as they came and went from various stages, they kept finding the Grateful Dead, still on their own long, strange trip.

However, for a variety of reasons, I came up with far fewer examples of musicians who had shared the stage with the Dead in two different ensembles than I had expected. Most of the ones listed here are the obvious San Francisco suspects, and there were far fewer of the likes of Jorge Calderon, David Lindley and Jim McCarty. Of course, I could have expanded my parameters. If I included free concerts in Golden Gate Park, then various other players join the list (just to name one example, Greg Dewey was in Mad River, who played the Summer Solstice on June 21, 1967, and later in Country Joe and The Fish in 1969). However, free concerts in the 60s were not touring events, just big parties, and it didn't capture the same dynamic I was seeking. I grant I included the Dead/Starship show on September 28, 1975, as part of my list, but that show was more formally organized, and in any case the Starship played with the Dead many times (although Marty Balin may not have).

It's also true that rock festivals from the 60s would yield a much longer list of musicians. However, the mere fact that, say Nicky Hopkins played Woodstock with the Jefferson Airplane does not mean he ever spoke to or even saw any member of the Grateful Dead during that weekend. I was much more interested in the idea of a touring musician who thought "here I am in another band, and the Grateful Dead are still out there doing it." My discovery that the list was far shorter than I thought undermined any conclusion I might draw. Nonetheless, having made the list, I decided to publish it anyway.

If anyone can confirm the presence or absence of the players on this list, or suggest other musicians who might fit the criteria, please email me or bring them up in the Comments.